Hiding part of your criteria from the database

Tuesday 16 April 2019 @ 5:21 pm

I first wrote about this issue a decade ago when it showed up in databases like Paradox, Btrieve and Visual Dbase. But I recently saw it twice in PostGreSQL environments so I am going to write about it again.

The problem occurs when you add a new rule to the selection formula. The main symptom is that the criteria works fine when you click “use saved data” but then when you refresh you lose some valid records. Some people think they have a bad join which can also cause you to lose records, but a bad join will lose records even if you click “use saved data”.

In my experience, the issue is usually connected with an index in the database.  When Crystal Reports sends your new rule to the database, the database tries to use an index to speed things up. But some indexes don’t work correctly for filtering and will cause the report to miss some or all valid records. The solution is to prevent that rule from being sent to the database by forcing the rule to be applied locally. There are three approaches I have used:

1) Starting with CR 2008 (v12) you can put this rule into the “Saved Data” selection formula. This selection formula is always applied locally so the database usually doesn’t see it. Crystal will apply this selection formula to the records that are sent back by the database.

2) The first option may not work in call cases, and of course it won’t work if you use an older version of Crystal that doesn’t have that feature.  In that case you have to use the method I wrote about in 2007. You write the selection formula in a way that forces Crystal to apply that rule locally.  If the report is SQL based you want to prevent Crystal’s SQL generator from converting that rule into the SQL WHERE clause.  The most reliable way I have found is by putting the database field inside a Crystal function. For instance if your problem rule uses  a numeric field in the selection formula like this:

{table.Amount} > 50

I would write it as

Round({table.Amount},2) > 50

Or if your selection formula is:

{Transaction.Code} = “ABC”

I would write it as

Left({Transaction.Code},3) = “ABC”

Applying a function to a database field in the selection formula will usually prevent that rule from being converted into the SQL.  In some cases I write the rule as a separate formula field called {@Criteria} and then reference {@Criteria} in the selection formula by adding a line to the selection formula like:

…. and {@Criteria}

Note that this is the exact opposite of what you normally want to do. Normally we want ALL of the record selection formula to be sent to the database or convert into the SQL WHERE clause.  It makes your query more efficient.  When I have a slow report one of the first things I check is for functions in the selection formula.  But it doesn’t help to be efficient if the database can’t handle the rule correctly.

3) I recently had one case where neither of the above options solved the problem. No matter how I wrote the criteria formula, as soon as it was part of the selection formula I would lose records.  So we gave up on selection and used suppression instead.  This is a last resort.  You don’t use the {@Criteria} formula in the selection formula at all.  Without the rule the report will include some records that you don’t want. You then suppress the unwanted records with a suppression formula like this:

not {@Criteria}

When you use this method you also have to make sure these records aren’t included in any totals. This means writing a formula that only includes the records that you want and then doing all totals on these formulas. For instance I could write a formula like this:

if  {@Criteria}
then {table.Amount}
else 0

If I total this formula it won’t matter that I have suppressed records in the report. I don’t see them and they aren’t in the totals.

Solving problems when reporting on CSV files

Monday 8 April 2019 @ 6:39 pm

You can create Crystal Reports that directly read CSV files using the Access/Excel(DAO) connection.  Just keep in mind that CSV files don’t always make an ideal data source. Like spreadsheets, CSV files don’t have set data types for each column. This can cause data type ambiguity which might cause you to lose some data. And in some cases the report will read the first record of the CSV file as the column headings, removing the first record of data from the dataset.

But here CSV files have one advantage over XLS files. CSV files allow you to introduce a Schema.ini file to define the data type for each column in the CSV. This is something you can’t do with spreadsheets. The schema.ini file is a simple text file that sits in the same folder as your CSV. There are many attributes available in schema.ini, but you only need to use the attributes that you need.  The other attributes will be set based on defaults stored in the registry.  Here are the most common problems I find that can be solved with a schema.ini file.

  1. The CSV is reading the first row of data as column headings
  2. Columns read as the wrong data type
  3. Character column is read as numeric and shows only the numeric values
  4. The columns are parsed using the wrong character

Here is an example of a schema.ini that defines two different CSV files in the same folder:


Col1=OrderDate date
Col2=Amount long
Col3=CustID text
Col4=CustName text
Col5=CustCategory text

As you can see, a single INI file can define multiple CSV files when they are in the same folder. Each file gets it’s own section of the INI file. Both files are set to be read as comma delimited.  Both files are set to NOT treat the first row as column headings. In the first file we allow the driver to name the fields (usually A, B, C, etc) and determine the data type automatically. In the second file we name each column and assign each a data type.

So if you are reporting on a CSV file and running into issues, using a Schema.ini file may help solve the problem.

Comparison of desktop-based schedulers (2019 update)

Tuesday 26 March 2019 @ 11:15 am

How would you like your reports to be automatically run, exported to a PDF and delivered to your Email InBox every Monday morning at 6am? The Crystal Reports designer doesn’t provide a way to do this (unless you upgrade to CR Server or BO Enterprise). But if you look at third party products like those on my LINKS page you will find several reasonably priced or free tools that do this. Some do even more. So every March I go through the list and publish a feature comparison on my blog.

There are 11 active products in the list this year. The page linked above provides a brief description of each product and lists the features that set it apart. Then there is a detailed feature matrix that shows the key specifics for comparison, including prices. To clarify the matrix terminology I have written a feature glossary to explain what each feature means. Finally there are links to the vendor websites so that you can get more information on each product. In May I will be updating a separate article that compares server based scheduling tools. If you think one person can manage all of your scheduling you are probably fine with one of the desktop tools, regardless of the number of people receiving the scheduled output. But if you plan to have multiple people scheduling reports then you may want to consider a server based tool.

Another option for selecting ALL in a parameter

Saturday 23 March 2019 @ 11:04 am

I wrote last fall about selecting “ALL” with a string parameter field. My comments at the end list options for making the technique work for numbers and dates. Recently I received a note from one of my colleagues on a better approach, using optional parameters.

Starting with CR 2008 (v14) Crystal has allowed us to define a parameter as “optional”. This allows the user to not enter a value at all in a parameter. However, when you use an optional parameter in a formula you always have to test for the existence of a value in the parameter field before you use. The test often looks like this:

if HasValue ( {?Tax Rate} )
then {Orders.Order Amount}*{?Tax Rate}
else 0

This way the report knows what to do when the parameter is skipped.

Another way of creating an ALL option is to tell the report that any time there is no value entered in the parameter, the user wants ALL values. The formula would look something like this:
(not HasValue ( {?State} ) or {Customer.State} = {?State})

Note that the HasValue() test has to come before any other test that uses that parameter. If you reverse the two tests in this formula it will generate an error whenever you don’t fill in the parameter.

And thanks to Luc Rascar, a Crystal Reports/Business Objects consultant in France, for pointing this out.

A simpler approach to address blocks

Thursday 14 March 2019 @ 9:33 pm

One of my favorite parts of writing this blog is when people read a post and then send me an alternate approach that teaches me something new.  Like today.

Last month I shared a formula for creating an address block that will automatically remove blank lines. Today one of my readers showed me how he does this with a text object. He uses a formatting property called “Suppress Embedded Field Blank Lines”.  I had never seen this option before so I quickly checked my version of Crystal. There it was in the formatting properties of text objects (not fields). I thought I might have missed this because it was a recent feature, so I started working backwards through the different Crystal versions to see when it appeared. I stopped when I found it in CRv8.5 which is nearly 20 years old. So much for missing a recent feature.

To use this feature you add a blank text object to your report. You then ’embed’ fields by dragging each field over the text until you see a hash mark. This indicates where the field will be embedded in the text, even in the middle of a sentence.  When the hash mark is in the right spot, you release the field and it becomes embedded into the text object at that point.

To create an address block you would add all the address fields into a text object and hit <Enter> between each one so that each field is on it’s own line. At first, any empty fields will create a blank line in the block. But if you go into Format > Text> [common tab], and check the property mentioned above, these blank lines go away automatically.

This may not work in every situation, but it is much simpler then the formula approach I posted last month.  And thanks to Duane Fenner, an Accounting Support Specialist at LTi Technology Solutions for sharing this with me.

Carriage returns in a formula that will survive a text export.

Friday 8 March 2019 @ 12:40 am

There are several common uses for exporting to text format.

I use text format whenever I need a Fixed Length export file. These are files where the exported record doesn’t have a comma or pipe delimiter. Each field in the string is identified by its character position in the string, since each field is a specific number of characters. This means that all records end at the same position, regardless of how long individual field values are.

I also use text export format for some CSV exports, because there is more flexibility.  For instance, when I need to generate two CSV rows from the same detail row in the data I find it easier to structure the CSV rows in a formula  and export as text.

And that brings me to what I learned last week. If you are exporting to “text” format and the formula you are exporting has carriage returns in it, you might find that they don’t work after the export. For instance the formula below would show 3 rows in the preview of Crystal Reports:

{@String1} & CHR(13) &
{@String2} & CHR(13) &

The function element CHR(13) creates a carriage return between the different elements of the string. But if you export this formula using “text” format you will find that the carriage returns don’t survive the export. The text file would not have the three rows that you see in preview. But with a little experimenting I found that adding a second related function in the formula works better:

{@String1} & CHR(13) & CHR(10) &
{@String2} & CHR(13) & CHR(10) &

In CR preview both formulas will appear the same. However, the second formula will provide carriage return that survives into the text export, while the first one will not.

Within a week of making this discovery for one customer, I found I needed the same thing for a second customer. I probably should have figured this out even sooner. When working text files and hidden codes I have seen that you usually need both a carriage return, Chr(13), and a line feed , Chr(10) to start a new line. But since it only takes one of these in Crystal preview, it is easy to forget that they work together.

Applying a formatting condition to multiple fields

Thursday 28 February 2019 @ 9:59 am

If I want to remove the decimals of several fields at once you can use CTRL-click or a cursor lasso to select all the fields, then go to the toolbar and hit the “reduce decimals’ button. Each click will remove one decimal from all of the selected fields.

You can do something similar when you want to apply a formatting condition formula. For example, if you want to turn negative numbers red while leaving positive numbers black. The font color condition formula looks like this:

if currentfieldvalue < 0
then CrRed
else CrBlack

To apply this formula to one field you select that field and then select the menu items “Format > Field”. On the “Font” tab you click the condition formula button next to font color. It will usually look like the top one of these buttons:

Once inside you paste in the formula above and then click “Save and Close. The formula button should turn red and look like the middle button above. This means the condition has a formula. When you click OK the negative values for that field will turn red.

Note that the formula doesn’t refer to a specific field, but to the function “CurrentFieldValue”. This function is only available when you do condition formulas and refers to the value of the field you are formatting. The advantage is that the same logic can be used on any numeric field and the condition will be exactly the same, rather than each field having to have a different formula that mentions a specific field.

If you want to apply this formula to several fields at once you could select that group of fields and then select the menu items “Format > Objects”. Like above, you go to the “Font” tab, click the [x+2] and paste in the formula. When you click “Save and Close, then then click OK all of those objects should have that property.

One thing to look out for when you are formatting multiple fields at once is a purple condition button (bottom example in the picture above). This only appears when you try to format multiple fields at once. This tells you that some/all of these fields already have a condition and that not all of them are the same. If you click a purple condition button it will show you a blank formula. If you put in a new formula you will overwrite any existing logic and all of the selected fields will end up with the new condition.

How link direction can affect performance

Saturday 23 February 2019 @ 1:33 pm

I have written before about links that tap into indexes and how they can speed things up. Especially when you can hit ALL of the fields in the index.

This week I was troubleshooting a report that took 2 hours to run and found a similar case. The report was from a Sage/MAS accounting application. I saw a link between invoiceHistoryHeader and InvoiceHistoryDetails where it took 2 fields to make a unique match.  I checked the index tags for the primary key (red colored tabs) and and found that there were 3 fields in the details table primary index while the header table had only 2. Since we only had two of those fields to use for linking I wanted to make sure the link went from the details to the header, so that the link would completely hit the index. From the arrangement of the tables that appeared to be true, but when I hit “Auto Arrange” I could see that the join actually started with the header and went to the details.

Reversing the join allowed the report to complete in 7 minutes. Still slow, but a huge improvement over 2 hours.

Add an address block without blank lines

Friday 15 February 2019 @ 12:21 am

I often find one or more “address blocks” at the top of form reports, like invoices or purchase orders. These are blocks of text that typically show a customer name, two or three lines for address info, and a last line for City/State/Zip. The simple approach is to arrange the individual fields on the report, but if some address lines are blank you get empty rows in the block. Here is the approach I use to make sure that there are no empy lines in the block.

First you write a formula that combines the city/state/zip into one row like this:

//{@City, State & Zip}
{Cust.CITY} & ", " & {Cust.STATE} & "  " & {Cust.ZIP}

Then you write a formula that combines the first formula with the other potential rows of the address, like this:

{CONTACT1.Company} &
(if {Cust.ADDRESS1} > "" then CHR(13) & {Cust.ADDRESS1} else "") &
(if {Cust.ADDRESS2} > "" then CHR(13) & {Cust.ADDRESS2} else "") &
(if {Cust.ADDRESS3} > "" then CHR(13) & {Cust.ADDRESS3} else "") &
CHR(13) & {@City, State & Zip}

The formula above assumes that every record will have a Company value and a City/State/Zip value. The address lines are added if they have a value. And when they are added a carriage return is also added, using CHR(13). This way each line appears on its own row, but only when it has data. There are no blank lines when a field has no data.

Two things to watch for.
1) You should set both of the formulas above to use “Default Values for Nulls”. Otherwise a Null value for one of these fields will cause a blank address block.
2) Make sure you format the address block with “Can Grow” and then don’t put anything right below it in the same section.  Otherwise the address field might grow right over the object below it.

Windows update breaks Raiser’s Edge reports

Saturday 9 February 2019 @ 6:20 pm

I have several customers that use the donor tracking software Raiser’s Edge(RE) and pull data out of it with Crystal Reports. To run CR against RE data usually involves exporting the data to an MS Access (MDB) file and then reading that MDB with Crystal. The challenge is that Microsoft doesn’t really support the classic MDB format anymore.

This week I heard from several RE users that a recent Windows update has broken the process. They go to run the report and get an error that the file format is in an “unrecognizable database format”.

One customer was able to resolve the problem by changing the export from “Blackbaud Report Writer Database (MDB)” to “MS Access 2000 Database” but there is some concern about making this change. Some users have said that these exports work fine when you run a report from Crystal, but that these reports will not always run fine from within the RE application menu. Others have had success running reports from these exports in both environments. I haven’t found the specific difference but I suspect that it may have to do with the version of the ODBC driver being used.

I will post more information as it comes in.

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